2022 Vol. 8, No. 1

Cover Story

Liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) is an emerging phenomenon involved in various biological processes. The formation of phase separated condensates is crucial for many intrinsically disordered proteins to fulfill their biological functions. Using the recombinant protein to reconstitute the formation of condensates in vitro has become the standard method to investigate the behavior and function of LLPS. Meanwhile, there is an urgent need to characterize the LLPS in living cells. Importantly, condensates formed through LLPS at physical relevant concentrations are often smaller than the optical diffraction limit, which makes precise characterization and quantification inaccurate due to the scatter of light. The booming devel opment of super resolution optical microscopy enables the visualization of multiple obscured subcellular components and processes, which is also suitable for the LLPS research. In this protocol, the authors provide step-by-step instructions to help users take advantage of super resolution imaging to depict the morphology and quantify the molecule number of endogenous condensates in living cells using RNA Pol II as an example. This streamlined workflow offers exceptional robustness, sensitivity, and precision, which could be easily implemented in any laboratory with an inverted total internal reflection microscope. They expect that super-resolution microscopy will contribute to the investigation of both large and tiny condensates under physiological and pathological conditions and lead our understanding of the mechanism of LLPS to a higher and deeper layer.

Preface to the special issue of Phase Separation: methodologies tailored for studying biomolecular condensates
Characterization of liquid–liquid phase separation using super-resolution and single-molecule imaging
Cellular and animal models to investigate pathogenesis of amyloid aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases
Quantifying phase separation at the nanoscale by dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (dcFCCS)
Biochemical and biophysical characterization of pathological aggregation of amyloid proteins