To be launched on Aug 2015
Sponsored by Biophysical Society of China and Institute of Biophysics, CAS, P.R. China.
Online published by SpringerLink.

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An efficient two-step subcellular fractionation method for the enrichment of insulin granules from INS-1 cells
Yan Chen, Zhiping Xia, Lifen Wang, Yong Yu, Pingsheng Liu, Eli Song, Tao Xu
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (1): 34-40.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-015-0008-x
Abstract   PDF (1234KB)
Insulin is one of the key regulators for blood glucose homeostasis. More than 99% of insulin is secreted from the pancreatic β-cells. Within each β-cell, insulin is packaged and processed in insulin secretary granules (ISGs) before its exocytosis. Insulin secretion is a complicated but well-organized dynamic process that includes the budding of immature ISGs (iISGs) from the trans-Golgi network, iISG maturation, and mature ISG (mISG) fusion with plasma membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are largely unknown. It is therefore crucial to separate and enrich iISGs and mISGs before determining their distinct characteristics and protein contents. Here, we developed an efficient two-step subcellular fractionation method for the enrichment of iISGs and mISGs from INS-1 cells: OptiPrep gradient purification followed by Percoll solution purification. We demonstrated that by using this method, iISGs and mISGs can be successfully distinguished and enriched. This method can be easily adapted to investigate SGs in other cells or tissues, thereby providing a useful tool for elucidating the mechanisms of granule maturation and secretion.
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Phosphorylation and function of DGAT1 in skeletal muscle cells
Jinhai Yu, Yiran Li, Fei Zou, Shimeng Xu, Pingsheng Liu
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (1): 41-50.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-015-0004-1
Abstract   PDF (5854KB)
Aberrant intramuscular triacylglycerol (TAG) storage in human skeletal muscle is closely related to insulin insensitivity. Excessive lipid storage can induce insulin resistance of skeletal muscle, and under severe conditions, lead to type 2 diabetes. The balance of interconversion between diacylglycerol and TAG greatly influences lipid storage and utilization. Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) plays a key role in this process, but its activation and phosphorylation requires further dissection. In this study, 12 putative conserved phosphorylation sites of DGAT1 were identified by examining amino acid conservation of DGAT1 in different species. Another 12 putative phosphorylation sites were also found based on bioinformatics predictions and previous reports. Meanwhile, several phosphorylation sites of DGAT1 were verified by phosphorylation mass spectrometry analysis of purified DGAT1 from mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. Using single point mutations, a regulatory role of 3 putative phosphorylation sites was dissected. Finally, using truncation mutations, a potential domain of DGAT1 that was involved in the regulation of enzymatic activity was revealed. This study provides useful information for further understanding DGAT1 activity regulation.
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Biophysics Reports    2016, 2 (5-6): 0-0.   DOI:
Abstract   PDF (4843KB)
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Analysis of chromatin bersin Hela cells with electron tomography
Xiaomin Li, Hongli Feng, Jianguo Zhang, Lei Sun, Ping Zhu
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (1): 51-60.   DOI: 10.1007/x41048-015-0009-9
Abstract   PDF (2590KB)
The presence and folding pattern of chromatin in eukaryotic cells remain elusive and controversial. In this study, we prepared ultra-thin sections of Hela cells with three different fixation and sectioning methods, i.e., chemical fixation, high pressure freezing with freeze substitution, and cryo-ultramicro- tomy with SEM-FIB (focused ion beam), and analyzed in vivo architecture of chromatin fibers in Hela nuclei with electron tomography technology. The results suggest that the chromatin fibers in eukaryotic Hela cells are likely organized in an architecture with a diameter of about 30 nm.
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Biophysics Reports: focus on theoretical and technical advances
Tao Xu
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (1): 1-1.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-015-0010-3
Abstract   PDF (301KB)
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Biophysics Reports    DOI:
Visualizing the Ensemble Structures of Protein Complexes Using Chemical Cross-Linking Coupled with Mass Spectrometry
Zhou Gong, Yue-He Ding, Xu Dong, Na Liu, E. Erquan Zhang, Meng-Qiu Dong, Chun Tang
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (3): 127-138.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-015-0015-y
Abstract   PDF (1992KB)
Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry (CXMS) identifies protein residues that are close in space, and has been increasingly used for modeling the structures of protein complexes. Here we show that a single structure is usually sufficient to account for the intermolecular cross-links identified for a stable complex with sub-μmol/L binding affinity. In contrast,we show that the distance between two cross-linked residues in the different subunits of a transient or fleeting complex may exceed the maximum length of the cross-linker used, and the cross-links cannot be fully accounted for with a unique complex structure. We further show that the seemingly incompatible cross-links identified with high confidence arise from alternative modes of protein-protein interactions. By converting the intermolecular crosslinks to ambiguous distance restraints, we established a rigid-body simulated annealing refinement protocol to seek the minimum set of conformers collectively satisfying the CXMS data. Hence we demonstrate that CXMS allows the depiction of the ensemble structures of protein complexes and elucidates the interaction dynamics for transient and fleeting complexes.
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Using integrated correlative cryo-light and electron microscopy to directly observe syntaphilin-immobilized neuronal mitochondria in situ
Shengliu Wang, Shuoguo Li, Gang Ji, Xiaojun Huang, Fei Sun
Biophysics Reports    2017, 3 (1-3): 8-16.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-017-0035-x
Abstract   PDF (3069KB)
Correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) system has been fast becoming a powerful technique with the advantage to allow the fluorescent labeling and direct visualization of the close-to-physiologic ultrastructure in cells at the same time, offering unique insights into the ultrastructure with specific cellular function. There have been various engineered ways to achieve cryo-CLEM including the commercial FEI iCorr system that integrates fluorescence microscope into the column of transmission electron microscope. In this study, we applied the approach of the cryo-CLEMbased iCorr to image the syntaphilin-immobilized neuronal mitochondria in situ to test the performance of the FEI iCorr system and determine its correlation accuracy. Our study revealed the various morphologies of syntaphilin-immobilized neuronal mitochondria that interact with microtubules and suggested that the cryo-CLEM procedure by the FEI iCorr system is suitable with a half micron-meter correlation accuracy to study the cellular organelles that have a discrete distribution and large size, e.g. mitochondrion, Golgi complex, lysosome, etc.
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Choosing proper fluorescent dyes, proteins, and imaging techniques to study mitochondrial dynamics in mammalian cells
Xingguo Liu, Liang Yang, Qi Long, David Weaver, György Hajnóczky
Biophysics Reports    DOI: 10.1007/s41048-017-0037-8
Abstract   PDF (494KB)
Mitochondrial dynamics refers to the processes maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis, including mitochondrial fission, fusion, transport, biogenesis, and mitophagy. Mitochondrial dynamics is essential for maintaining the metabolic function of mitochondria as well as their regulatory roles in cell signaling. In this review, we summarize the recently developed imaging techniques for studying mitochondrial dynamics including:mitochondrial-targeted fluorescent proteins and dyes, live-cell imaging using photoactivation, photoswitching and cell fusion, mitochondrial transcription and replication imaging by in situ hybridization, and imaging mitochondrial dynamics by super-resolution microscopy. Moreover, we discuss examples of how to choose and combine proper fluorescent dyes and/or proteins.
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Dye-based mito-thermometry and its application in thermogenesis of brown adipocytes
Tao-Rong Xie, Chun-Feng Liu, Jian-Sheng Kang
Biophysics Reports    DOI: 10.1007/s41048-017-0039-6
Abstract   PDF (5837KB)
Mitochondrion is the main intracellular site for thermogenesis and attractive energy expenditure targeting for obesity therapy. Here, we develop a method of mitochondrial thermometry based on Rhodamine B methyl ester, which equilibrates as a thermosensitive mixture of nonfluorescent and fluorescent resonance forms. Using this approach, we are able to demonstrate that the efficacy of norepinephrine-induced thermogenesis is low, and measure the maximum transient rate of temperature increase in brown adipocytes.
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Biophysics Reports    2017, 3 (1-3): 0-0.   DOI:
Abstract   PDF (5527KB)
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Physics-based RNA structure prediction
Xiaojun Xu, Shi-Jie Chen
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (1): 2-13.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-015-0001-4
Abstract   PDF (1685KB)
Despite the success of RNA secondary structure prediction for simple, short RNAs, the problem of predicting RNAs with long-range tertiary folds remains. Furthermore, RNA 3D structure prediction is hampered by the lack of the knowledge about the tertiary contacts and their thermodynamic parameters. Low-resolution structural modeling enables us to estimate the conformational entropies for a number of tertiary folds through rigorous statistical mechanical calculations. The models lead to 3D tertiary folds at coarse-grained level. The coarse-grained structures serve as the initial structures for all-atom molecular dynamics refinement to build the final all-atom 3D structures. In this paper, we present an overview of RNA computational models for secondary and tertiary structures' predictions and then focus on a recently developed RNA statistical mechanical model—the Vfold model. The main emphasis is placed on the physics behind the models, including the treatment of the non-canonical interactions in secondary and tertiary structure modelings, and the correlations to RNA functions.
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Phenylboronic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for one-step saccharides enrichment and mass spectrometry analysis
Xiangdong Xue, Yuanyuan Zhao, Xu Zhang, Chunqiu Zhang, Anil Kumar, Xiaoning Zhang, Guozhang Zou, Paul C. Wang, Jinchao Zhang, Xing-Jie Liang
Biophysics Reports    DOI: 10.1007/s41048-015-0002-3
Abstract   PDF (1530KB)
In this work, 2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethanolblocked phenylboronic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (blocked PMNPs) were fabricated for selective enrichment of different types of saccharides. The phenylboronic acid was designed for capturing the cis-diols moieties on saccharides molecules, and the 2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol can deplete the nonspecific absorption of peptides and proteins which always coexisted with saccharides. For mass spectrometry analysis, the PMNPs bound saccharides can be directly applied onto the MALDI plate with matrix without removing the PMNPs. By PMNPs, the simple saccharide (glucose) could be detected in pmol level. The complex saccharides can also be reliably purified and analyzed; 16 different Nglycans were successfully identified fromovalbumin, and the high-abundance N-glycans can be detected even when the ovalbumin was in very low concentration (2 μg). In human milk, ten different oligosaccharides were identified, and the lactose can still be detected when the human milk concentration was low to 0.01 μL.
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Solubilization and purification of recombinant modified C-reactive protein from inclusion bodies using reversible anhydride modification
Lawrence A. Potempa, Zhen-Yu Yao, Shang-Rong Ji, János G. Filep, Yi Wu
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (1): 18-33.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-015-0003-2
Abstract   PDF (2149KB)
The precise function of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a regulator of inflammation in health and disease continues to evolve. The true understanding of its role in host defense responses has been hampered by numerous reports of comparable systems with contradictory interpretations of CRP as a stimulator, suppressor, or benign contributor to such processes. These discrepancies may be explained in part by the existence of a naturally occurring CRP isoform, termed modified CRP (i.e., mCRP), that is expressed when CRP subunits are dissociated into monomeric structures. The free mCRP subunit undergoes a non-proteolytic conformational change that has unique solubility, antigenicity, and bioactivity compared to the subunits that remain associated in the native, pentameric CRP molecule (i.e., pCRP). As specific reagents have been developed to identify and quantify mCRP, it has become apparent that this isoform can be formed spontaneously in calcium-free solutions. Furthermore, mCRP can be expressed on perturbed cell membranes with as little as 24-48 h incubation in tissue culture. Because mCRP has the same size as pCRP subunits as evaluated by SDS-PAGE, its presence in a pCRP reagent would not be apparent using this technique to evaluate purity. Finally, because many antibody reagents purported to be specific for "CRP" contains some, or substantial specificity tomCRP, antigen-detection techniques using such reagents may fail to distinguish the specific CRP isoform detected. All these caveats concerning CRP structures and measurements suggest that the aforementioned contradictory studies may reflect to some extent on distinctive bioactivities of mCRP rather than on pCRP. To provide a reliable, abundant supply of mCRP for separate and comparable studies, a recombinant proteinwas engineered and expressed in E. coli (i.e., recombinant mCRP or rmCRP). Synthesized protein was produced as inclusion bodies which proved difficult to solubilize for purification and characterization. Herein, we describe a method using anhydride reagents to effectively solubilize rmCRP and allow for chromatographic purification in high yield and free of contaminating endotoxin. Furthermore, the purified rmCRP reagent represents an excellent comparable protein to the biologically produced mCRP and as a distinctive reagent from pCRP. Deciphering the true function of CRP in both health and disease requires a knowledge, understanding, and reliable supply of each of its structures so to define the distinctive effects of each on the body's response to tissue damaging events.
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MetaDP: a comprehensive web server for disease prediction of 16S rRNA metagenomic datasets
Xilin Xu, Aiping Wu, Xinlei Zhang, Mingming Su, Taijiao Jiang, Zhe-Ming Yuan
Biophysics Reports    2016, 2 (5-6): 106-115.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-016-0033-4
Abstract   PDF (986KB)
High-throughput sequencing-based metagenomics has garnered considerable interest in recent years. Numerous methods and tools have been developed for the analysis of metagenomic data. However, it is still a daunting task to install a large number of tools and complete a complicated analysis, especially for researchers with minimal bioinformatics backgrounds. To address this problem, we constructed an automated software named MetaDP for 16S rRNA sequencing data analysis, including data quality control, operational taxonomic unit clustering, diversity analysis, and disease risk prediction modeling. Furthermore, a support vector machine-based prediction model for intestinal bowel syndrome (IBS) was built by applying MetaDP to microbial 16S sequencing data from 108 children. The success of the IBS prediction model suggests that the platform may also be applied to other diseases related to gut microbes, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, or intestinal cancer, among others (
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Particle segmentation algorithm for flexible single particle reconstruction
Qiang Zhou, Niyun Zhou, Hong-Wei Wang
Biophysics Reports    DOI: 10.1007/s41048-017-0038-7
Abstract   PDF (2908KB)
As single particle cryo-electron microscopy has evolved to a new era of atomic resolution, sample heterogeneity still imposes a major limit to the resolution of many macromolecular complexes, especially those with continuous conformational flexibility. Here, we describe a particle segmentation algorithm towards solving structures of molecules composed of several parts that are relatively flexible with each other. In this algorithm, the different parts of a target molecule are segmented from raw images according to their alignment information obtained from a preliminary 3D reconstruction and are subjected to single particle processing in an iterative manner. This algorithm was tested on both simulated and experimental data and showed improvement of 3D reconstruction resolution of each segmented part of the molecule than that of the entire molecule.
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The advent of structural biology in situ by single particle cryoelectron tomography
Jesús G. Galaz-Montoya, Steven J. Ludtke
Biophysics Reports    DOI: 10.1007/s41048-017-0040-0
Abstract   PDF (4263KB)
Single particle tomography (SPT), also known as subtomogram averaging, is a powerful technique uniquely poised to address questions in structural biology that are not amenable to more traditional approaches like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and conventional cryoEM single particle analysis. Owing to its potential for in situ structural biology at subnanometer resolution, SPT has been gaining enormous momentum in the last five years and is becoming a prominent, widely used technique. This method can be applied to unambiguously determine the structures of macromolecular complexes that exhibit compositional and conformational heterogeneity, both in vitro and in situ. Here we review the development of SPT, highlighting its applications and identifying areas of ongoing development.
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Implications for directionality of nanoscale forces in bacterial attachment
Jan J. T. M. Swartjes, Deepak H. Veeregowda
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (3): 120-126.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-016-0019-2
Abstract   PDF (1432KB)
Adhesion and friction are closely related and play a predominant role in many natural processes. From the wall-clinging feet of the gecko to bacteria forming a biofilm, in many cases adhesion is a necessity to survive. The direction in which forces are applied has shown to influence the bond strength of certain systems tremendously and can mean the difference between adhesion and detachment. The spatula present on the extension of the feet of the gecko can either attach or detach, based on the angle at which they are loaded. Certain proteins are known to unfold at different loads, depending on the direction at which the load is applied and some bacteria have specific receptors which increase their bond strength in the presence of shear. Bacteria adhere to any man-made surface despite the presence of shear forces due to running fluids, air flow, and other causes. In bacterial adhesion research, however, adhesion forces are predominantly measured perpendicularly to surfaces, whereas other directions are often neglected. The angle of shear forces acting on bacteria or biofilms will not be at a 90 angle, as shear induced by flow is often along the surface. Measuring at different angles or even lateral to the surface will give a more complete overview of the adhesion forces and mechanism, perhaps even resulting in alternative means to discourage bacterial adhesion or promote removal.
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Class C G protein-coupled receptors: reviving old couples with new partners
Thor C. Møller, David Moreno-Delgado, Jean-Philippe Pin, Julie Kniazeff
Biophysics Reports    DOI: 10.1007/s41048-017-0036-9
Abstract   PDF (949KB)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key players in cell communication and are encoded by the largest family in our genome. As such, GPCRs represent the main targets in drug development programs. Sequence analysis revealed several classes of GPCRs:the class A rhodopsin-like receptors represent the majority, the class B includes the secretin-like and adhesion GPCRs, the class F includes the frizzled receptors, and the class C includes receptors for the main neurotransmitters, glutamate and GABA, and those for sweet and umami taste and calcium receptors. Class C receptors are far more complex than other GPCRs, being mandatory dimers, with each subunit being composed of several domains. In this review, we summarize our actual knowledge regarding the activation mechanism and subunit organization of class C GPCRs, and how this brings information for many other GPCRs.
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Radioligand saturation binding for quantitative analysis of ligand-receptor interactions
Chengyan Dong, Zhaofei Liu, Fan Wang
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (3): 148-155.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-016-0016-5
Abstract   PDF (474KB)
The reversible combination of a ligand with specific sites on the surface of a receptor is one of the most important processes in biochemistry. A classic equation with a useful simple graphical method was introduced to obtain the equilibrium constant, Kd, and the maximum density of receptors, Bmax. The entire 125I-labeled ligand binding experiment includes three parts: the radiolabeling, cell saturation binding assays and the data analysis. The assay format described here is quick, simple, inexpensive, and effective, and provides a gold standard for the quantification of ligand-receptor interactions. Although the binding assays and quantitative analysis have not changed dramatically compared to the original methods, we integrate all the parts to calculate the parameters in one concise protocol and adjust many details according to our experience. In every step, several optional methods are provided to accommodate different experimental conditions. All these refinements make the whole protocol more understandable and user-friendly. In general, the experiment takes one person less than 8 h to complete, and the data analysis could be accomplished within 2 h.
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Thermodynamics of GPCR activation
Xuejun C. Zhang, Ye Zhou, Can Cao
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (3): 115-119.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-016-0017-4
Abstract   PDF (594KB)
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Accelerating electron tomography reconstruction algorithm ICON with GPU
Yu Chen, Zihao Wang, Jingrong Zhang, Lun Li, Xiaohua Wan, Fei Sun, Fa Zhang
Biophysics Reports    DOI: 10.1007/s41048-017-0041-z
Abstract   PDF (1253KB)
Electron tomography (ET) plays an important role in studying in situ cell ultrastructure in threedimensional space. Due to limited tilt angles, ET reconstruction always suffers from the "missing wedge" problem. With a validation procedure, iterative compressed-sensing optimized NUFFT reconstruction (ICON) demonstrates its power in the restoration of validated missing information for low SNR biological ET dataset. However, the huge computational demand has become a major problem for the application of ICON. In this work, we analyzed the framework of ICON and classified the operations of major steps of ICON reconstruction into three types. Accordingly, we designed parallel strategies and implemented them on graphics processing units (GPU) to generate a parallel program ICON-GPU. With high accuracy, ICON-GPU has a great acceleration compared to its CPU version, up to 83.7×, greatly relieving ICON's dependence on computing resource.
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Using 3dRPC for RNA-protein complex structure prediction
Yangyu Huang, Haotian Li, Yi Xiao
Biophysics Reports    2016, 2 (5-6): 95-99.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-017-0034-y
Abstract   PDF (901KB)
3dRPC is a computational method designed for three-dimensional RNA-protein complex structure prediction. Starting from a protein structure and a RNA structure,3dRPC first generates presumptive complex structures by RPDOCK and then evaluates the structures by RPRANK. RPDOCK is an FFT-based docking algorithm that takes features of RNA-protein interactions into consideration, and RPRANK is a knowledgebased potential using root mean square deviation as a measure. Here we give a detailed description of the usage of 3dRPC. The source code is available at
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E2-2, a novel immunohistochemical marker for both human and monkey plasmacytoid dendritic cells
Jianping Ma, Haisheng Yu, Xiangyun Yin, Menglan Cheng, Quanxing Shi, Zhao Yin, Xiaohua Nie, Wang Shouli, Liguo Zhang
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (3): 139-147.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-016-0023-6
Abstract   PDF (3481KB)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play important roles in initiating and regulating immune responses. pDC infiltration has been documented in multiple pathological lesions including infections, tumors, and autoimmune diseases, and the severity of pDC infiltration correlates with disease progression. However, a specific antibody for identifying pDCs by immunohistochemical staining on paraffin-embedded tissue sections is still lacking. Here, we developed a novel antibody targeted E2-2, a transcription factor preferentially expressed in pDCs. The antibody stains the nuclei of pDCs specifically in immunohistochemical analysis of various tissues from both human and rhesus monkey. This novel antibody will serve as a beneficial tool for pDC-related basic research and clinical investigation.
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Pseudomonas sp. LZ-Q continuously degrades phenanthrene under hypersaline and hyperalkaline condition in a membrane bioreactor system
Yiming Jiang, Haiying Huang, Mengru Wu, Xuan Yu, Yong Chen, Pu Liu, Xiangkai Li
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (3): 156-167.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-016-0018-3
Abstract   PDF (1399KB)
Phenanthrene is one of the most recalcitrant components of crude oil-contaminated wastewater. An efficient phenanthrene-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain named LZ-Q was isolated from oil-contaminated soil near the sewage outlet of a petrochemical company. Pseudomonas sp. LZ-Q is able to degrade 1000 mg/L phenanthrene in Bushnell-Hass mineral salt medium. It also degrades other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, petrol, and diesel at broad ranges of salinities of 5 g/L to 75 g/L, pHs of 5.0-10.0, and temperatures of 10-42 ℃. Therefore, Pseudomonas sp. LZ-Q could be a good candidate for remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated wastewater. A membrane bioreactor (MBR) was applied to investigate the remediation ability of the strain LZ-Q. Wastewater containing phenanthrene with pH of 8, salinity of 35 g/L, and COD of 500 mg/L was continuously added to the system (HRT = 3 h). Results showed that Pseudomonas sp. LZ-Q is capable of degrading 96% of 20 mg/L phenanthrene and 94% of 500 mg/L COD for 60 days in a continuous mode. These results showed that the MBR system with strain LZ-Q might be a good approach for PAHs' remediation in industrial wastewaters.
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Transcriptomic analysis of human breast cancer cells reveals differentially expressed genes and related cellular functions and pathways in response to gold nanorods
Teng Zhou, Yipeng Du, Taotao Wei
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (2): 106-114.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-015-0005-0
Abstract   PDF (1703KB)
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths inwomen.Recent advances in nanomedicine have shown that gold nanorods (AuNRs), as multifunctional drug delivery and photothermal therapeutic agents, have potential for use in cancer therapy. However, the effect of AuNRs on the transcriptome of breast cancer cells is unknown. In the present study, cells of the triple-negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, which has high metastatic activity, were treated with AuNRs for transcriptomic analysis using RNA-seq technology. In total, 3126 genes were found to be up-regulated and 3558 genes were found to be downregulated inAuNR-treatedMDA-MB-231 cells. These differentially expressed genes presumably take part in multiple biological pathways, including glycolysis and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and impact a variety of cellular functions, including chemoattractant activity. The distinct gene expression profile of MDA-MB-231 cells treated with AuNRs provides a foundation for further screening and validation of important genes involved in the interaction between AuNRs and MDA-MB-231 cells.
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A comprehensive procedure for antiviral inhibitor discovery using EV71 as an example
Lin Cao, Shouhai Zhu, Yaxin Wang, Zhiyong Lou, Yuna Sun
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (2): 81-89.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-015-0006-z
Abstract   PDF (2725KB)
The prevalence of chronic viral infectious diseases, the emergence and re-emergence of new viral infections, and in particular, resistance to currently used antiviral drugs have led to increased demand for new antiviral strategies and reagents. Increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms of viral infection has provided great potential for the discovery of new antiviral agents that target viral proteins or host factors. In this work, we introduce a comprehensive system using enteroviruses 71 (EV71) as an example for leading compound discovery to develop new antiviral.
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Detecting peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation by one-dimensional isoelectric focusing
Zhenbo Cao, Neil J. Bulleid
Biophysics Reports    2015, 1 (1): 14-17.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-015-0007-y
Abstract   PDF (408KB)
The activity of typical 2-cys peroxiredoxin (Prxs) can be regulated by hyperoxidation with a consequent loss of redox activity. Here we developed a simple assay to monitor the level of hyperoxidation of different typical 2-cys prxs simultaneously. This assay only requires standard equipment and can compare different samples on the same gel. It requires much less time than conventional 2D gels and gives more information than Western blotting with an antibody specific for hyperoxidized peroxiredoxin. This method could also be used to monitor protein modification with a charge difference such as phosphorylation.
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Opinion:hazards faced by macromolecules when confined to thin aqueous films
Robert M. Glaeser, Bong-Gyoon Han
Biophysics Reports    2017, 3 (1-3): 1-7.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-016-0026-3
Abstract   PDF (584KB)
Samples prepared for single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) necessarily have a very high surface-to-volume ratio during the short period of time between thinning and vitrification. During this time, there is an obvious risk that macromolecules of interest may adsorb to the air-water interface with a preferred orientation, or that they may even become partially or fully unfolded at the interface. In addition, adsorption of macromolecules to an air-water interface may occur even before thinning. This paper addresses the question whether currently used methods of sample preparation might be improved if one could avoid such interfacial interactions. One possible way to do so might be to preemptively form a surfactant monolayer over the air-water interfaces, to serve as a structure-friendly slide and coverslip. An alternative is to immobilize particles of interest by binding them to some type of support film, which-to continue using the analogy-thus serves as a slide. In this case, the goal is not only to prevent the particles of interest from diffusing into contact with the air-water interface but also to increase the number of particles seen in each image. In this direction, it is natural to think of developing various types of affinity grids as structure-friendly alternatives to thin carbon films. Perhaps ironically, if precautions are not taken against adsorption of particles to air-water interfaces, sacrificial monolayers of denatured protein may take the roles of slide, coverslip, or even both.
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Crystal structures of MdfA complexed with acetylcholine and inhibitor reserpine
Ming Liu, Jie Heng, Yuan Gao, Xianping Wang
Biophysics Reports    2016, 2 (2-4): 78-85.   DOI: 10.1007/s41048-016-0028-1
Abstract   PDF (1269KB)
The DHA12 family of transporters contains a number of prokaryotic and eukaryote membrane proteins. Some of these proteins share conserved sites intrinsic to substrate recognition, structural stabilization and conformational changes. For this study, we chose the MdfA transporter as a model DHA12 protein to study some general characteristics of the vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (VNTs), which all belong to the DHA12 family. Two crystal structures were produced for E. coli MdfA, one in complex with acetylcholine and the other with potential reserpine, which are substrate and inhibitor of VNTs, respectively. These structures show that the binding sites of these two molecules are different. The Achbinding MfdA is mainly dependent on D34, while reserpine-binding site is more hydrophobic. Based on sequence alignment and homology modelling, we were able to provide mechanistic insights into the association between the inhibition and the conformational changes of these transporters.
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CN 10-1302/Q
ISSN 2364-3439
eISSN 2364-3420
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